March Case Study – Entei

March Case Study – Entei

entei1Name:            Entei

Age:               7 years

Breed:           Chow Chow

Condition:    Osteoarthritis in Multiple joints and a Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture in the Right Hind.

Entei first attended the centre for Hydrotherapy treatment in July 2012 following diagnosis with Osteoarthritis developing in multiple joints. Since this time Entei has attended once per week for Aquatic Treadmill Treatment.

Osteoarthritis is the most common cause of lameness in dogs and is thought to affect up to 1 in 5 dogs.

Osteoarthritis is also termed Degenerative Joint Disease and is defined as the progressive and permanent long-term deterioration of the cartilage surrounding the joints.

There is no known cause for primary DJD but there are a wide variety of causes for secondary DJD including trauma, abnormal wear and tear on joints, congenital defect or abnormal development of the joint.


The image above demonstrates a normal joint and one affected by Osteoarthritis.


When Entei first attended the centre he was very wary of everyone and it took him a little while to settle in, although he can still get worried by new people, but we are now able to handle him as he is more settled at the centre.

On the first session Entei was fully assessed including muscle mass measurements which the owner took initially as he was too nervous of the staff at the centre.

Measurements on the first session – 28/07/2012 – are below –

Limb Measurement
Left Fore 26cm
Right Fore 26cm
Left Hind 31cm
Right Hind 31.5cm


These measurements demonstrated that although Entei had been diagnosed with Osteoarthritic changes in multiple joints he was even on his limbs.

Following the assessment it was decided that the aquatic treadmill would be the most appropriate equipment for Entei’s treatment, so after a health check, harness fit and shower he was taken into the treadmill. He exhibited an obvious lameness of the right fore limb and so the treadmill could be used to encourage weight bearing whilst supported by the water and re train his gait pattern to load evenly through each limb.

On the first session he carried out 2 walks of about 1 minute each with a good rest between, he coped well with this and although nervous about the whole thing he took to his treatment well.

Entei carried out 10 sessions and then was re measured on 27/10/2012 as follows –

Limb Measurement
Left Fore 29cm
Right Fore 29cm
Left Hind 39cm
Right Hind 39cm


These second measurements were taken by the hydrotherapist as Entei had relaxed during his sessions and allowed the staff to handle him.

These measurements showed he had build muscle mass in the fore and hind limbs and the amount of limping demonstrated before, during or after exercise had reduced.

The water levels and times have been gradually changed for Entei and this is now maintained at 10 inches of water, speed of 1.0 mile per hour and he manages walks of around 1 minute to 1 minute 30 seconds depending on how he is managing exercise that day and if any signs of lameness are present.

In December 2014 Entei was diagnosed with a Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture in the right hind limb and the Veterinary Surgeon advised that we maintain his hydrotherapy sessions in order to maintain muscle around this joint and so assist with stabilisation. This is why his times have been kept reduced and the speed low also.

The Cranial Cruciate Ligament is one of the most important stabilisers in the canine knee (Stifle) joint. Rupture of this ligament is one of the most common reasons for hind limb lameness, pain and subsequent Osteoarthritis. Partial ruptures can be treated with medication and rehabilitation and total ruptures will usually require surgical intervention.


The above diagram demonstrates the position of the Cranial / Anterior Cruciate Ligament in the stifle joint.

Since this diagnosis, Entei has been kept on a maintenance hydrotherapy plan and the owner is also monitoring him and at and using a photizo machine.

The Photizo machine is an red light and infrared light lazer that promotes healing and cell rejuvenation in the area that is treated.


Entei in the treadmill during a session.


Entei’s measurments over the time he has attended in brief are as follows –

29/12/2012 –

Limb Measurement
Left Fore 30cm
Right Fore 30cm
Left Hind 39cm
Right Hind 39cm


11/2013 –

Limb Measurement
Left Fore 36cm
Right Fore 38cm
Left Hind 42cm
Right Hind 39cm


19/04/2014 –

Limb Measurement
Left Fore 38cm
Right Fore 40cm
Left Hind 43cm
Right Hind 42cm


Overall during his time at the centre we have seen great improvements with Entei. We are aware that he has good and bad days and his sessions are adjusted depending on how he copes on that particular day.

Entei has carried out over 100 sessions at the centre and we hope he continues to maintain his muscle mass and overall stability through his treatment.



Entei is a lovely boy and a big fluffy teddy bear, as you can see from the pictures.

We love treating him at the centre and the enthusiasm, care and attention his owners show him has definately helped in getting him to this point.

Well done Entei and we hope you continue to progress steadily with your rehabilitation.